In 1949 and 1950 he recorded with Miles Davis. He founded the Modern Jazz Society with John Lewis in 1955 which would later became known as the Jazz and Classical Music Society. He also invented the term "third stream" to describe the mixing of classical music and jazz. Schuller would use this technique in many of his own musical compositions including, Transformation (1957), Concertino and Abstraction both 1959, and Variants on a Theme of Thelonious Monk (1960).
In 2011 he published the first volume of his autobiography, A Life in Pursuit of Music and Beauty.
More recently, Schuller premiered a new arrangement of Scott Joplin's opera Treemonisha in 2012 which was performed at London's South Bank as part of "The Rest is Noise" season in 2013.